Answers to Popular Questions about the Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West, facilitating the exchange of goods, culture, and ideas between diverse civilizations. Spanning over two millennia, this historical pathway played a crucial role in shaping the world’s history, fostering economic growth, cultural exchange, and technological advancements.

The Silk Road

The exchange of ideas and artistic influences along the Silk Road resulted in transcultural art and architecture, blending various styles and techniques.

But have you ever wondered how the Silk Road got its name? And how was the Silk Road tied to the bubonic plague and Black Death? And exactly how long did the Silk Road last?

Below, World History Edu answers some of the most frequently asked questions about the Silk Road:

What was the Silk Road?

It was a vast trade network that passed through three continents – Asia, Africa and Europe. Most importantly, the Silk Road was not just via land but it was also via sea, passing through the Mediterranean Sea.

How did it get its name – Silk Road?

The name of this vast trade network came from the commodity silk, which at the time was very much valued across Eurasia and North Africa.

The term “Silk Road” was coined by the geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen in the late 19th century. As a German native, he used the names Seidenstraße and Seidenstraßen, which translate to Silk Road and Silk Roads, respectively.

Map of Eurasia and Africa showing trade networks, c. 870

How long did the Silk Road last?

Generally, the Silk Road is believed to have begun around the 2nd century BC during the Han Dynasty of China and persisted until around 14th or 15th century AD. It is also generally accepted that the collapse of the Silk Road came around the 18th century.

How long did the Silk Road extend?

It’s been estimated that the vast network of trade routes reached over 6,400 kilometers (about 4000 miles).

How important was a shovel when traveling the Silk Road?

The Silk Road region was vast and in some cases arid, and finding water sources along the Silk Road would have been essential for survival. A shovel could be used to dig for underground water sources like wells or to create makeshift reservoirs to collect rainwater.

Also, a shovel would be helpful for digging fire pits, latrines, and trenches to protect against harsh weather conditions.

Finally, shovel were used by travelers to clear paths, remove obstacles, and level the ground, making it easier for caravans to pass through.

What was the importance of caravanserai along the Silk Road?

Caravanserai played a crucial role in facilitating trade and travel along the Silk Road. These roadside inns were strategically located along the major trade routes, providing essential services and accommodations for merchants, travelers, and their animals.

Those roadside inns provided a safe and secure place for travelers to rest, especially during long and arduous journeys. They offered protection from bandits and provided a sense of safety in remote and potentially dangerous areas.

Sultan Han Caravanserai

Sultan Han is a large 13th-century Seljuk caravanserai located in the town of Sultanhanı, Aksaray Province, Turkey. Situated on the ancient trade route in central Turkey, this well-preserved caravanserai was a vital link between East and West. Image: Main interior of Sultan Han Caravanserai

Caravanserai played a significant role in boosting the economies of the regions they were located in. They generated income through the provision of services and through trade transactions, stimulating local economies.

Some of the most notable caravanserais along the Silk Road were: Sultan Han Caravanserai (located in today’s Sultanhanı, Aksaray Province, Turkey), Rabati Malik Caravanserai (located in today’s Navoiy Province, Uzbekistan), Multani Caravanserai (located in Baku, Azerbaijan), and Ağzıkara Han (located in today’s Aksaray Province, Turkiye).

These caravanserais represent the rich history and significance of the Silk Road as a trade and cultural network that connected civilizations across Asia and beyond.

Tash Rabat Caravanserai

Nestled in the Tian Shan Mountains, this stone caravanserai served as a resting place for travelers on the Silk Road. Image: 15th-century Tash Rabat Caravanserai in today’s At-Bashy District, Naryn Province, Kyrgyzstan

Multani Caravanserai and Bukhara Caravanserai

Caravanserai provided a safe and secure place for travelers to rest, especially during long and arduous journeys. They offered protection from bandits and provided a sense of safety in remote and potentially dangerous areas. Image: Multani Caravanserai and Bukhara Caravanserai.

What factors helped the Silk Road expand?

In almost every human civilization trade and commerce have always thrived when there is stable political climate and economic growth. The Silk Road was no different.

The stability and peace injected into the region during the Pax Mongolica era helped increase the volume of goods that were traded in the region. Also known as the Mongolian Peace, Pax Mongolica was a period that spanned between the 13th and 14th centuries – a time when the Mongol Empire had under its control a significant portion of the Silk Road.

As a result, there was a reduction in the barriers to trade as well as bandits and dangers that lurked on the road. This resulted in the opening up of more trade routes, which resulted in merchants raking in a lot of returns.

With silk being one of the most valued commodity at the time, the trade between China – i.e. a major producer of silk at the time – and the Eurasia and Africa flourished.

What were some of the risks faced by merchants along the Silk Road?

It’s a known fact that powerful empires, such as the Han Dynasty in China, the Roman Empire in the West, and the Mongol Empire provided protection and infrastructure for the Silk Road. Sometimes, rulers would levy taxes or tribute on goods passing through their territories.

However, traveling on the Silk Road was not without some form of risks. Merchants faced various hazards, including harsh weather, bandits, and the challenges of crossing vast deserts and mountain ranges.

Also travelers faced the risk of contracting various diseases during their long journeys. The lack of proper sanitation, exposure to unsanitary conditions, and close quarters in caravans made them susceptible to illnesses such as dysentery, typhoid, and the bubonic plague.

A Westerner on a camel, Northern Wei dynasty (386–534)

How exactly was trade done on the Silk Road?

Trade on the Silk Road was conducted through a complex network of overland and maritime routes that connected the ancient civilizations of Asia, the Middle East, and Europe. The Silk Road was not a single road but a series of interconnected trade routes that facilitated the exchange of goods, culture, and ideas between the East and West.

Merchants traveled in caravans, often consisting of hundreds or even thousands of camels, horses, or donkeys, carrying goods across vast distances. These caravans helped protect traders from bandits and provided a way to transport goods through difficult terrains.

Along the Silk Road, there were numerous resting stations and trade cities where merchants could stop, rest, and trade their goods. These cities became important hubs for cultural exchange and economic activity.

In most cases, trade on the Silk Road was conducted through a barter system, where goods were exchanged directly for other goods, without the use of money. This system allowed for flexible trade arrangements and facilitated the exchange of a wide range of products.

While bartering was common, various forms of currency were also used for trade, such as gold and silver coins, especially in more developed urban centers.

What was the relay trade used on the Silk Road?

In order to circumnavigate the major threats and challenges posed on the Silk Road, relay trade became the common practice.

Also given vast distances, rather than a single merchant attempting to traverse the entire length of the Silk Road from China to Europe or Northern Africa, goods would change hands multiple times during their journey. Each merchant specialized in transporting goods through specific sections of the Silk Road.

The process worked like a relay race, where the item being traded passed from one merchant to another at various trading posts or cities along the route. Each merchant would transport the goods for a certain distance, and then, at a designated point, hand them over to another merchant who would continue the journey. This allowed for a more efficient and manageable transportation of goods over long distances.

Relay trade had several advantages. It reduced the burden on individual merchants, as they only needed to handle a specific section of the journey. It also allowed goods to be transported more swiftly and efficiently, as different merchants could capitalize on their knowledge of local routes, customs, and trade networks in their respective regions.

Moreover, relay trade facilitated cultural exchanges, as merchants from different regions interacted at trading hubs, sharing ideas, languages, and customs. It played a crucial role in disseminating knowledge, technology, and religions along the Silk Road.

The success of relay trade depended on mutual trust and well-established trade relationships between merchants from various regions. It enabled the Silk Road to flourish as a vast and intricate network of trade and cultural interactions that connected the East and West for centuries.

Why was camel the favored mode of transportation over land?

Use of camels on the Silk Road was a very much common phenomenon

Camels are well-adapted to the harsh and arid landscapes along the Silk Road, including deserts and rocky terrains. Their ability to endure long journeys without water made them ideal for crossing vast stretches of arid regions.

Also, camels have a unique ability to carry heavy loads, making them perfect for transporting goods across long distances. They could carry substantial amounts of merchandise, such as silk, spices, precious metals, and other valuable goods.

The decision to use camels stemmed from the fact that they require relatively little water and can graze on sparse vegetation, making them more manageable than other animals like horses or oxen that need more food and water.

Who were some of the most famous merchants on the Silk Road?

Traders on the Silk Road came from diverse backgrounds, including Chinese, Indian, Persian, Arab, and Central Asian merchants. Middlemen played an important role, acting as intermediaries between different regions and cultures, facilitating trade and communication.

These merchants played a crucial role in facilitating trade along the route, exchanging goods, ideas, and cultural influences. They often formed caravans to ensure safe travel through the vast and challenging landscapes, connecting the East and West and contributing to the flourishing exchange of goods and knowledge during the ancient and medieval periods.

Some of the most famous merchants and sailors along the Silk Road were:

  • Zhang Qian (195 BC – 114 BC): A Chinese diplomat and explorer from the Han Dynasty, Zhang Qian is considered one of the pioneers of the Silk Road. He traveled to Central Asia and played a crucial role in establishing diplomatic and trade relations between China and the West.
  • Marco Polo (c. 1254 – 1324): An Italian merchant and explorer, Marco Polo is perhaps the most well-known traveler along the Silk Road. His extensive travels took him from Venice to China and back, documenting his experiences in his book “The Travels of Marco Polo.”

Mosaic of Marco Polo displayed in the Palazzo Doria-Tursi, Genoa, Italy

  • Zheng He (1377 – c. 1435): A Chinese admiral and diplomat during the Ming Dynasty, Zheng He led several expeditions in the early 15th century. His voyages reached as far as East Africa and facilitated maritime trade and diplomatic interactions.

Chinese explorer and diplomat Zheng He (1371 – c. 1435). Image: Statue from a modern monument to Zheng He at the Stadthuys Museum in Malacca City, Malaysia

  • Niccolò and Maffeo Polo: Father and uncle of Marco Polo, Niccolò, and Maffeo were Venetian merchants who preceded Marco in traveling to the East, venturing as far as China.
  • Ibn Battuta (1304 – 1369): A Moroccan explorer, Ibn Battuta, traveled extensively across Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Central Asia during the 14th century. His accounts provide valuable insights into the cultural and social aspects of the regions he visited.
Zheng He's travels

Early 17th-century Chinese woodblock print, thought to represent Zheng He’s ships

How did the Silk Road facilitate the exchange of diseases?

Diseases were exchanged on the Silk Road through a process known as the “Columbian Exchange.” The Silk Road was not a single, continuous route but rather a network of trade routes connecting different regions across Asia, Europe, and Africa. Along these routes, merchants, travelers, and explorers came into contact with various cultures and populations, leading to the exchange of goods, ideas, and unfortunately, diseases.

The movement of people along the Silk Road facilitated the spread of diseases. Infected individuals could carry pathogens from one region to another, introducing new diseases to previously unexposed populations. Animals, such as camels and horses, were used as pack animals for caravans, and their movement between regions could bring animal-borne diseases with them.

For example, during the late second century, a devastating plague spread across the Roman Empire, causing widespread death and disruption. Historians believe that this plague, known as the Antonine Plague or the Plague of Galen, may have originated in China before reaching the Roman Empire through the vast trade networks of the Silk Road.

While the exact path of the plague’s spread is not definitively known, it is theorized that the plague began in China or Central Asia. As it spread westward along the Silk Road, it eventually reached the Near East, where Roman soldiers were campaigning. The close quarters of military encampments, along with the movement of soldiers and trade caravans, provided fertile grounds for the rapid transmission of the disease.

About 12 centuries after the Antonine Plague, the Silk Road was once again at the heart of the spread of a major plague. The spread of the bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death, devastated Europe in the 14th century. The plague is believed to have originated in Central Asia and was spread through trade routes, including the Silk Road, to Europe and other parts of the world.

What kinds of goods were predominantly traded?

The Silk Road was known for facilitating the trade of luxury goods such as silk, spices, precious metals, gems, ivory, slaves, and exotic animals. These goods were highly valued in distant markets and commanded high prices.

The spices predominantly came from the East Indies; silk and lacquerware came from China; myrrh and frankincense from Somalia; and furs from the Caucasian steppe. On the flip side, glass beads, for example, came were taken from Rome to the east.

Horses brought from the West to China played a crucial role in strengthening the military power of the Mongol Empire, enabling their conquests and expansion. On the other hand, gunpowder, an invention from China, made its way to Europe through the Silk Road, revolutionizing warfare and shaping the course of history for many nations.

Basically, the interconnectedness of the Silk Road fostered a cross-cultural exchange that left a lasting mark on the development of societies and technologies around the world.

A ceramic horse head and neck (broken from the body), from the Chinese Eastern Han dynasty (1st–2nd century CE)

Were slaves traded along the Silk Road?

Yes, slavery was a significant aspect of trade along the Silk Road. Slaves were one of the commodities exchanged between various regions connected by the trade routes. Slavery was prevalent in many societies during ancient and medieval times, and it was no exception along the Silk Road.

Slaves were acquired through various means, including wars, raids, and capture during conflicts. They were then transported and traded across different regions to be used as labor, servants, concubines, or soldiers. Slavery was a complex and unfortunate part of the historical trade along the Silk Road, reflecting the social and economic practices of the time.

What cultural and religious ideas were exchanged along the Silk Road?

Along with goods, the Silk Road facilitated the exchange of cultural and religious ideas. Buddhism, Manchaeism, Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and other belief systems spread along these trade routes.

A painting depicting women inspecting silk, early 12th century, ink and color on silk, by Emperor Huizong of Song.

What were some of the important cities along the Silk Road?

The Silk Road passed through a number of cities. These cities played a crucial role in facilitating trade, cultural exchange, and the movement of people and ideas along the Silk Road.

Some of the key cities along the Silk Road included:

  1. Xi’an (Chang’an) – The starting point of the Silk Road in China, a bustling capital during the Tang Dynasty.
  2. Dunhuang – An oasis town in China where the famous Mogao Caves housed important Buddhist art and manuscripts.
  3. Samarkand – A prominent city in present-day Uzbekistan, known for its grand architecture and cultural significance.
  4. Bukhara – Another significant city in Uzbekistan, renowned for its role as a major trading center and center of Islamic learning.
  5. Baghdad – A pivotal hub for trade and scholarship during the Abbasid Caliphate in Iraq.
  6. Aleppo – An ancient city in Syria, linking the Silk Road to the Mediterranean Sea.
  7. Antioch – A Roman city in present-day Turkey, serving as a gateway between the East and West.
  8. Kashgar – An important stop on the Silk Road in Western China, known for its bustling bazaars and diverse cultures.
  9. Tashkent – A major city in Uzbekistan, acting as a central trading point on the Silk Road.
  10. Constantinople (Istanbul) – The Byzantine capital, controlling trade between Europe and Asia.

Map showing Byzantium along with the other major silk road powers during China’s Southern dynasties period of fragmentation.

What were the major sea routes of the Silk Road?

The sea route of the Silk Road, also known as the Maritime Silk Road, was an essential component of the broader Silk Road network. It facilitated maritime trade and cultural exchange between different regions of Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa. Unlike the overland Silk Road, which primarily involved caravan routes across the Eurasian continent, the Maritime Silk Road utilized the vast network of seas and oceans to connect distant civilizations.

Major maritime trading hubs emerged along the coasts of the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and the Red Sea. These hubs served as crucial centers for the exchange of goods and cultural interactions.

Similar to the land routes, the sea route allowed for the transportation of valuable goods such as silk, spices, porcelain, precious metals, textiles, and luxury items between different regions.

The success of the Maritime Silk Road depended on advancements in navigational technologies, shipbuilding techniques, and maritime knowledge, which enabled safer and more efficient sea travel.

Major port cities, such as Guangzhou (Canton) in China, Melaka (Malacca) in Malaysia, Calicut (Kozhikode) in India, and Alexandria in Egypt, played a crucial role in facilitating trade and cultural exchange.

The combination of both the overland and sea routes of the Silk Road allowed for an intricate web of exchange and interaction that contributed to the development and prosperity of civilizations along these ancient trade routes.

How did Rome benefit from the Silk Road?

The Silk Road facilitated the exchange of goods, luxury items, and commodities between Rome and the East, including silk, spices, precious stones, and other valuable products. This trade contributed to the wealth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.

The Silk Road served as a conduit for the flow of ideas, technologies, and cultural practices between different civilizations. Rome was exposed to the arts, philosophies, and sciences of the East, enriching its own cultural heritage.

Also, the trade along the Silk Road fostered diplomatic relations between Rome and various Eastern powers, including the Parthian and Sassanian Empires. Diplomatic exchanges facilitated peace and sometimes alliances.

Finally, the Silk Road allowed Rome to extend its influence beyond its borders, encouraging cultural and political connections with distant regions.

How did Chinese silk get to Rome?

Chinese Embassy, carrying silk and a string of silkworm cocoons, 7th century CE, Afrasiyab, Sogdia.

Chinese silk, highly valued for its quality and rarity, was one of the most sought-after commodities along this trade network.

The production of this commodity in ancient China was a closely guarded secret. The Chinese carefully cultivated silkworms and harvested their cocoons to obtain the fine silk threads.

After production, the silk was transported overland from China to the western regions of Central Asia. Along the way, it passed through various oasis cities and trading posts.

In Central Asia, the silk was traded and transferred to merchants from other regions, including Persia and the Roman Empire.

From Central Asia, the silk was transported through the Middle East via caravans and trade routes that crossed the deserts and mountains. These routes eventually led to the eastern borders of the Roman Empire.

At the eastern borders of the Roman Empire, the silk was either shipped directly across the Mediterranean Sea or further transported overland to Roman ports.

Finally, the silk reached Rome, where it was highly prized and eagerly sought after by the Roman elite and wealthy classes. It was used for luxurious clothing, accessories, and furnishings.

What effect did the Roman Peace have on trade on the Silk Road?

The Pax Romana, meaning “Roman Peace,” was a period of relative stability and peace that began in the first century AD and lasted for approximately 200 years. During this time, the Roman Empire experienced a significant decrease in large-scale military conflicts and internal unrest, allowing for a more peaceful and prosperous environment.

With the establishment of the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire was able to focus on consolidating and governing its vast territories, which spanned across three continents. Political stability and the presence of a strong central authority led to increased security along trade routes and within the empire’s borders.

RELATED: How Augustus ushered in the Pax Romana era

The stability and security of the Pax Romana encouraged trade and commerce to flourish. Rome had access to key trade routes, particularly through Egypt, which connected the empire to regions like India and the Far East. These overseas trade routes facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultures between the Roman Empire and other distant lands.

The opening of trade with India brought valuable commodities such as spices, precious stones, textiles, and exotic animals to Rome. Indian traders would travel to the ports of Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean, establishing regular trade connections with the Romans.

The Silk Road in the 1st century AD

How did the Romans benefit from the Silk Road?

Rome’s relative stability and peace during the Pax Romana era brought about by increased trade on the Silk Road. This in turn benefited both the Roman Empire and its trading partners. The Roman elite and wealthy classes enjoyed access to luxurious goods from distant lands, while the economic activity created opportunities for merchants and traders.

How did the Silk Road influence the spread of religions, such as Buddhism and Islam?

The Silk Road was instrumental in the spread of Buddhism from India to Central Asia, China, and beyond. Buddhist monks and traders traveled along the Silk Road, carrying scriptures and teachings to different parts of Asia. They established monasteries and temples, fostering a vibrant Buddhist culture in the regions they visited. The translation of Buddhist scriptures into various languages, like Chinese and Tibetan, facilitated the religion’s integration into local cultures.

The Silk Road also played a crucial role in the diffusion of Islam. After the rise of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, Muslim traders, merchants, and Sufi missionaries traveled along the Silk Road routes. They introduced Islam to Central Asia, Persia, and the Indian subcontinent, where it gradually gained a following. Trade hubs such as Samarkand, Bukhara, and Baghdad became centers of Islamic scholarship and culture.

What led to the decline and eventual end of the Silk Road as a major trade route?

Overall, a combination of changing economic, political, and technological factors contributed to the decline and eventual obsolescence of the Silk Road as a major trade route.

Some of the factors are:

  • Over time, other maritime and overland trade routes emerged, offering safer and more efficient alternatives to the Silk Road. With the rise of the Indian Ocean trade routes and the establishment of stable sea routes by European powers during the Age of Exploration, the Silk Road gradually lost its prominence as the primary trade route between East and West.
  • Also, the regions along the Silk Road experienced political upheavals, such as the fall of empires, invasions, and wars. These disruptions disrupted trade and made the journey along the Silk Road more dangerous for merchants.
  • Maritime trade became increasingly popular due to technological advancements in shipbuilding and navigation. Ocean routes were faster, less arduous, and safer compared to overland journeys through the Silk Road.
  • The Pax Mongolica, a period of relative peace and stability under the Mongol Empire, facilitated trade along the Silk Road. However, after the decline of the Mongol Empire, regional conflicts and political fragmentation disrupted trade routes and discouraged merchants from using the Silk Road.
  • As new transportation technologies emerged, such as steamships and railways in the 19th century, trade routes were further revolutionized, making the overland Silk Road less relevant for long-distance commerce.

What was the historical significance of the Silk Road?

The Silk Road facilitated the exchange of various goods and innovations between East and West, resulting in significant impacts on different civilizations. Image: Marco Polo’s caravan on the Silk Road, 1380

The Silk Road holds immense historical significance as one of the most significant and influential networks of trade and cultural exchange in human history.

For example, the Silk Road facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, technologies, and religious beliefs among different civilizations, fostering cultural diffusion and understanding.

The diverse religious landscape along the Silk Road promoted tolerance and coexistence. The Silk Road was not just a trade route but a melting pot of cultures and beliefs. As merchants and travelers moved across different territories, religious diversity was celebrated, leading to peaceful cohabitation.

The flourishing trade along the Silk Road enabled the transmission of religious texts, artifacts, and symbols. Buddhist scriptures, Islamic calligraphy, and religious artworks traveled along with merchants and pilgrims, spreading the knowledge and aesthetics of various faiths.

Also, the Silk Road fueled economic growth and prosperity for regions connected to the trade route. It facilitated the flow of valuable goods such as silk, spices, precious metals, and other commodities, enhancing the wealth of participating regions.

Both sea and land routes allowed the transmission of advanced technologies and innovations between East and West, leading to advancements in various fields such as agriculture, metallurgy, and medicine.

Finally, the interactions along the Silk Road led to the establishment of diplomatic ties and alliances between empires, fostering stability and cooperation in the region.

How has the legacy of the Silk Road influenced global trade and cultural interactions today?

In the nutshell, the Silk Road was an early example of globalization, connecting distant regions and fostering international trade.

The historical Silk Road set the precedent for cross-border trade and economic cooperation. Modern trade agreements and international organizations continue to facilitate trade between countries, promoting economic growth and prosperity.

Also, the historical Silk Road set the precedent for cross-border trade and economic cooperation. Modern trade agreements and international organizations continue to facilitate trade between countries, promoting economic growth and prosperity.

In modern times, the concept of the Silk Road has been revived through colossal initiatives like the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which aims to enhance economic connectivity and infrastructure development across Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Did you know…?

  • There are several sections of the Silk Road that have made their way onto the UNESCO’s World Heritage List. They include the Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor of the Silk Road. This serial property includes the ancient capital of Chang’an (modern-day Xi’an) in China and the Tianshan mountain range, encompassing important cultural sites and natural landscapes along the Silk Road. Also a number of sites on the Routes Network of Tian-shan Corridor in Kyrgyzstan feature on the list. This site includes a portion of the Silk Road in Kyrgyzstan, representing the exchange of cultures and ideas along this route.
  • In today’s China alone, there are over 20 World Heritage Sites associated with the Silk Road.

What modern day countries constituted the Silk Road region?

The modern-day countries that were part of the Silk Road region include:

  • China
  • Mongolia
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Tajikistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Turkey (Turkiye)
  • Syria
  • Lebanon
  • Jordan
  • Israel
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Egypt
  • Yemen
  • Oman
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Pakistan
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Bhutan
  • Bangladesh
  • Sri Lanka
  • Myanmar (Burma)
  • Thailand
  • Laos
  • Cambodia
  • Vietnam
  • Malaysia
  • Singapore
  • Indonesia
  • Azerbaijan
  • Russia
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Italy

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