Ganga in Hinduism: Origin Story, Powers, Symbols, & Meaning

In Hinduism, the Ganga (Ganges River) is considered the most sacred and holiest river, personified as a goddess, Ganga. The river is deeply revered and worshipped as a source of purification, healing, and liberation. The river is believed to have descended from the heavens to the Earth, and it holds immense spiritual significance in Hinduism.

Ganga in Hinduism

Spiritual Purification

Ganga is believed to have the power to purify one’s soul and absolve sins. Pilgrims from across the country visit the river to bathe in its holy waters with the belief that it will cleanse their sins.

Liberation and Moksha

Hindus believe that immersing the ashes of deceased relatives in the Ganges ensures the liberation (Moksha) of the soul from the cycle of birth and death.

Living Goddess

Ganga is personified as a goddess, worshipped as a living deity, and is depicted in art and sculpture as a fair-complexioned woman, riding a crocodile and holding a water lily in her hand.

Descent to Earth

The descent of Ganga to the Earth is a significant event in Hindu mythology. As mentioned previously, King Bhagiratha’s penance led to Ganga descending from heaven to purify the souls of his ancestors, with Lord Shiva taming her turbulent waters by capturing her in his matted locks.

Bhagiratha and Ganga

Festivals and Rituals

Numerous festivals, like the Ganga Dussehra and Kumbh Mela, celebrate the river’s sanctity. Various rituals, such as Aarti, are performed on the banks of the Ganges, especially in places like Varanasi, Haridwar, and Rishikesh.

Center of Civilization and Culture

The Ganges River has been the cradle of Indian civilization, supporting large populations, influencing cultural developments, and fostering spiritual growth and education along its banks since ancient times.

Environmental Concern

The status of Ganga as a sacred entity has led to various environmental initiatives and movements aimed at preserving and cleaning the river, addressing the pollution and ecological challenges it faces.


Ganga also symbolizes life, purity, devotion, and the nurturing aspect of the divine, embodying the incessant flow of life, virtue, and grace.

Frequently asked questions about Ganga, the personification of the river Ganges

Ganga is the personification of the Ganges River. She is revered as a goddess in Hinduism and is one of the holiest rivers in India, believed to have descended from heaven to Earth. Image: A statue of Ganga, 17th–18th century AD

Here are some frequently asked questions about Ganga:

How did Ganga come to Earth?

As per mythology, King Bhagiratha undertook rigorous penance to bring Ganga to Earth to liberate his ancestors’ souls. Ganga’s descent from the heavens was so forceful that Lord Shiva had to intervene, catching her in his matted hair to break her fall and control the flow.

Why is the Ganges River considered holy?

The Ganges River is believed to have the power to purify and liberate souls. Bathing in its waters is considered an act of purification, washing away sins.

Shiva is often shown with a third eye on his forehead, a crescent moon, the Ganges river flowing from his matted hair, and a trident. His dance, the Tandava, symbolizes the cycle of creation, preservation, and destruction.

What is the significance of Ganga in Hindu rituals?

The waters of the Ganges are used in numerous Hindu rites, including purification ceremonies, pujas, and the ritualistic scattering of ashes after a person’s cremation.

Where is the source of the Ganges River?

The Ganges originates from the Gangotri glacier in the Himalayas, specifically at a place called Gaumukh in the state of Uttarakhand, India.

How is Ganga depicted in art and literature?

Ganga is often depicted as a fair-complexioned woman, wearing a white sari and riding a crocodile or makara. She holds a water pot in her hand, and water flows from her long hair.

What are the major festivals associated with Ganga?

“Ganga Dussehra” and “Ganga Saptami” are two major festivals dedicated to Goddess Ganga, celebrating her descent to Earth and her rebirth, respectively. Thousands gather on the banks of the river during these festivals to take a holy dip.

How does Ganga relate to other deities?

Ganga is closely associated with Lord Shiva, as she is often depicted flowing from his matted hair. She is also believed to be the daughter of the mountain god, Himavan.

Descent of Ganga, painting by Indian artist Raja Ravi Varma c. 1910

Are there environmental concerns related to the Ganges?

Yes, the Ganges River faces serious environmental challenges, including pollution from industrial effluents, untreated sewage, and ritualistic offerings. Multiple initiatives have been undertaken to clean and rejuvenate the river.

What are the main pilgrimage sites along the Ganges?

Key pilgrimage sites include Haridwar, Rishikesh, Varanasi, and Prayagraj (Allahabad). Each of these cities hosts significant religious events and sees millions of devotees annually.

Riverfront steps by the Ganges in Varanasi

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