Tagged: Caracalla

Caracalla, born Marcus Aurelius Antoninus on 4 April 188 AD, stands out as one of the most controversial figures in Roman imperial history. His reign was characterized by significant reforms, tyrannical behavior, and a unique approach to leadership.

Below, World History Edu present the major facts about this Roman Emperor:

Origins and Early Life

Caracalla was a member of the Severan dynasty. He was the elder son of Emperor Septimius Severus and Empress Julia Domna. His birthplace, Lugdunum (present-day Lyon, France), gives him the distinction of being one of the few Roman emperors born outside Italy.

Co-Ruler with his brother Geta

Initially, Caracalla ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta. Their father, Septimius Severus, declared them co-emperors in a bid to ensure stability after his death. However, this arrangement was short-lived. After the death of Septimius Severus in 211 AD, tension between the two brothers escalated. Within a year, Caracalla had Geta assassinated, solidifying his position as the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.

Antonine Constitution

Perhaps the most consequential of Caracalla’s policies was the Constitutio Antoniniana, or Antonine Constitution. Enacted in 212 AD, this decree granted Roman citizenship to nearly all free men within the boundaries of the Empire. While this move broadened the base of Roman citizenry, it also aimed at increasing tax revenue.

Baths of Caracalla

Caracalla’s penchant for grandeur is best exemplified by the Baths of Caracalla. This massive public bath complex, among the largest in Rome, showcased the zenith of Roman engineering and architecture. Today, it stands as a testament to the architectural legacy of the Roman Empire.

New Currency – Antoninianus

During his reign, Caracalla introduced a new silver coin named the antoninianus. This was roughly equivalent to two denarii. This coin was a response to the economic challenges of the time but eventually played a role in the inflationary pressures that would plague the later Roman Empire.

Military Campaigns and Accomplishments

A soldier at heart, Caracalla was known for his military campaigns. He perceived himself as the reincarnation of Alexander the Great and, with this inspiration, aimed to expand the Empire’s boundaries. One of his significant military engagements was against the Parthian Empire in 216 AD.

Was he a tyrannical ruler?

Caracalla’s rule wasn’t devoid of brutality. He is often cited in historical texts as having orchestrated various massacres both within Rome and in other parts of the Empire. His unpredictable and often violent behavior made him a feared leader.


Emperor Caracalla’s reign was cut short by assassination in 217 AD. Near Carrhae, he was murdered by Justin Martialis, a disgruntled soldier upset over a personal vendetta. Following Caracalla’s death, Macrinus, the Praetorian Prefect, quickly took the throne, leading many to speculate about his possible involvement in the assassination plot.


Caracalla’s legacy is multifaceted. While his tyrannical behavior and violent tendencies often overshadow other aspects of his rule, he is also credited with broad societal reforms, like the Antonine Constitution, which had lasting implications for the Roman Empire.

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