Who was Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last emperor of the Byzantine Empire?

Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last Byzantine Emperor, was born on February 8, 1405, in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. He belonged to the prestigious Palaiologos dynasty, which had ruled the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire since the mid-13th century. Constantine’s reign was brief, lasting from 1449 until 1453, but his courageous defense of Constantinople against the Ottoman Turks sealed his legacy as a heroic figure in Byzantine and world history.

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Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI

Constantine XI Palaiologos, while only reigning for a few years, left an indelible mark on history. As the last Byzantine Emperor, his brave defense against overwhelming odds remains a testament to the resilience and legacy of the Byzantine state. Image: Statue of Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI

Early Life and Ancestry

Constantine was the eighth of ten children born to Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragas, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragas. Growing up amidst the declining Byzantine Empire, Constantine and his siblings were no strangers to political and military turbulence. As a younger son, Constantine was initially not expected to ascend to the throne; instead, he undertook various administrative and military roles.

Initial Involvements in Politics and Military Affairs

The young prince’s involvement in the affairs of state began early. By the age of 20, he was appointed as the governor of the Peloponnese, the heartland of Byzantine power in the 15th century. Here, Constantine began his lifelong struggle against the Ottomans, engaging in various campaigns to secure and expand the territories under Byzantine control.

Constantine’s older brothers, John VIII and Theodore II, preceded him as rulers. As they did not produce any heirs, the weight of the empire’s continuity increasingly rested on Constantine’s shoulders.

Born in 1405, Constantine, the youngest son of Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragas, inherited a dwindling Byzantine Empire, weakened by lost territories and facing imminent threats from the Ottomans. Image: А miniature from the Louvre MS. Ivoires 100 manuscript, depicting the Byzantine emperor Manuel II Palaiologos, empress Helena and three of their sons – the co-emperor John VIII and the Despots Theodore and Andronikos.

Ascension to the Throne

After the death of his brother John VIII in 1448, and with the passing of his other brothers without issue, Constantine became the legitimate heir. He was crowned emperor in Mistra in 1449 and later in Constantinople. The early days of his reign were marked by attempts to secure alliances against the growing Ottoman threat. His negotiations, especially with the West, sought both military aid and the potential unification of the Eastern and Western Churches – a political move that he hoped would compel Catholic Europe to assist Byzantium in its struggle.

Map of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, in 1450.

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The Siege of Constantinople

By the time Constantine XI assumed the throne, the Byzantine Empire was a shadow of its former self, with its territories reduced to the city of Constantinople and some parts of the Peloponnese. The Ottoman Empire, in stark contrast, had surged in power and territory, with Sultan Mehmed II, known as “The Conqueror”, eyeing Constantinople as his greatest prize.

In April 1453, the inevitable occurred. Mehmed II laid siege to Constantinople with an army that some estimate to have numbered over 100,000, in addition to a formidable navy. Constantine, in contrast, could only muster a defense force of about 7,000 men, composed of both Byzantine soldiers and foreign mercenaries.

In his efforts to bolster the city’s defense, Constantine XI sought help from Western Europe, but the assistance was minimal. Despite the odds stacked against him, Constantine exhibited exemplary leadership and courage. For 53 days, the defenders resisted the Ottoman onslaught, repelling multiple attacks on the city’s walls.

However, on May 29, 1453, the city’s defenses broke. In the early hours, the Ottomans breached the walls of Constantinople. Constantine, realizing the end was near, reportedly made a final, brave charge against the invading forces. He died in battle, his body never to be definitively identified.

Fall of Constantinople

The entry of  Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II into Constantinople, painting by Italian painter Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)

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Legacy and Memory

Constantine XI’s death marked the end of the Byzantine Empire, a state that could trace its origins back to the foundation of Rome. While his reign was brief, his heroic stand against the Ottomans cemented his place in history. The fall of Constantinople was not just the end of an empire but symbolized the final close of the ancient world and the beginning of a new era in which the Ottoman Empire would become a dominant force in the region.

In Greece and among Orthodox Christians, Constantine XI is remembered as a national and religious hero. Legends sprang up after the fall, including the myth of the “Marble Emperor”: it was believed that an angel rescued Constantine at the last moment, turning him into marble and hiding him in a cave beneath the earth, where he would one day awaken to reconquer Constantinople for the Christians.

Constantine’s legacy also serves as a poignant reminder of the grandeur of Byzantium and the tragic end of its thousand-year history. His reign and the empire’s fall marked the transition from the medieval world to the early modern age, emphasizing the shifting balance of power in Eurasia.

Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos

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Frequently Asked Questions about Constantine XI Palaiologos

Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last emperor of the Byzantine Empire, ruling from 1449 until his death in 1453. Image: 15th-century portrait of Constantine XI (from a 15th-century codex containing a copy of the Extracts of History by Joannes Zonaras)

Why is Constantine XI Palaiologos significant?

As the final emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Constantine XI’s reign marked the end of an empire that had lasted over a millennium, since the foundation of Constantinople in AD 330.

Who were his parents?

Constantine XI Palaiologos’s parents were Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragas. Manuel II was the Byzantine Emperor from 1391 to 1425, while Helena Dragas was the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragas.

How did he become emperor?

He ascended to the throne after the death of his brother, Emperor John VIII Palaiologos.

Seal of Constantine XI Palaiologos, the last Byzantine Emperor

What were the challenges of his reign?

During his reign, the Byzantine Empire was in decline and under constant threat from the Ottomans. The empire was financially strained, had lost most of its territories, and Constantinople itself was surrounded by Ottoman-controlled lands.

Who were the spouses of Constantine XI Palaiologos?

His first marriage was to Theodora Tocco ​ ​(m. 1428; died 1429); while his second marriage was to​ Caterina Gattilusio ​ ​(m. 1441; died 1442). He had two brief marriages but died childless and unmarried.

However, persistent rumors claimed he left behind a widow and daughters, first documented in a 1453 letter by Aeneas Silvius (later Pope Pius II) to Pope Nicholas V. Aeneas’s “Cosmographia” expanded the tale, alleging Mehmed II violated and murdered the empress and Constantine’s daughters post-victory. Aeneas even conjured an imaginary son escaping to Galata. This narrative, potentially influenced by Nestor Iskander’s Tale on the Taking of Tsargrad, was further propagated by chroniclers like Mathieu d’Escouchy in the 16th century.

How did he die?

Constantine XI died during the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453. It is believed that he perished in combat, defending the city against the invading Ottoman forces led by Sultan Mehmed II.

What is the legend associated with him?

There’s a famous legend known as the “Marble Emperor” legend. It claims that when Constantinople was about to fall, an angel rescued Constantine XI, turned him into marble, and placed him in a cave beneath the city. According to the legend, he will one day awaken and reconquer Constantinople for the Christians.


Even as empires rise and fall, figures like Constantine XI stand out, reminding us of the enduring human spirit in the face of adversity. Through his life and death, he encapsulates the final chapter of an empire that connected the ancient and medieval worlds and profoundly influenced the course of Western civilization. Image: Portrait of Constantine XI Palaeologus; illustration from French Franciscan priest and explorer André Thevet’s ‘Les vrais pourtraits et vies des hommes illustres’ (Paris, 1584), page 291.

How did he prepare for the siege of Constantinople?

Aware of the impending threat from the Ottomans, Constantine XI sought assistance from Western Europe, fortified the city’s defenses, and tried to restore the crumbling walls of Constantinople. He also sought to improve relations with the Catholic Church, hoping for military aid.

Constantine XI Palaiologos

Constantine XI Palaiologos and the Fall of Constantinople

Did Western Europe send any help?

While Constantine XI’s appeals were largely met with indifference, some help did arrive. Notably, a small contingent of Venetian and Genoese soldiers, including the famed Genoese general Giovanni Giustiniani, came to aid in the city’s defense.

What was his relationship with the Catholic Church?

Constantine XI, like his predecessors, tried to unify the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, hoping this would lead to military support from the West. However, the attempts at unification were deeply unpopular with many Byzantines.

How is Constantine XI remembered today?

Constantine XI is often remembered as a heroic figure who stood defiantly against overwhelming odds. In modern Greece, he is seen as a symbol of resistance and sacrifice. The fall of Constantinople under his reign marked the end of the Byzantine era, ushering in the Ottoman period in the history of Southeast Europe.

Image: 19th-century depiction of Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI with classical Greco-Roman armor

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