What was the perception of miasma from around the world?

The concept of miasma, or harmful atmospheric influences, was not unique to Western societies; it was also prevalent in various other cultures around the world, each adapting the idea to fit their own environmental and cultural contexts.

Here’s how some other societies perceived miasma:


In traditional Chinese medicine, concepts akin to miasma explained certain diseases through environmental factors.

The Chinese referred to it as “瘴气” (zhàng qì), often translated as “miasma,” which was believed to be a poisonous vapor arising from swamps, rotting plants, and still waters. These miasmas were thought to cause illnesses when inhaled or when they came into contact with the skin.

The traditional response included the use of herbs and specific health practices aimed at purifying the body and environment, such as fumigation.


In ancient Indian medical texts, there are references to air pollution and environmental factors contributing to disease. While the concept is not labeled explicitly as miasma in the way Western or Chinese cultures might define it, the Ayurvedic texts discuss the importance of clean air, water, and surroundings for maintaining health, indicating an awareness of environmental contributors to disease that aligns with the miasma theory’s principles.

Middle Eastern Cultures

Islamic medical scholars in the Middle Ages also showed an understanding of environmental factors in disease transmission. While the specific concept of miasma as understood in the West was not directly adopted, these scholars, building on the Greek and Roman thoughts translated into Arabic, often discussed air quality and its impact on health. Avicenna (Ibn Sina), a Persian polymath, wrote extensively on health, emphasizing the influence of air and environment on human wellness.


Various African cultures traditionally recognized the influence of bad air from swamps and marshlands on health. In some regions, spiritual explanations for disease often intertwined with naturalistic ones, where bad spirits were thought to reside in unclean air and water sources, mirroring the idea of miasma but with a spiritual component.

European Colonies

In the colonies, particularly those in tropical regions, European settlers and colonial authorities often blamed miasma for the spread of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever.

This resulted in significant public health efforts to clean up swamps and improve sanitation, which, although based on incorrect assumptions about the causes of these diseases, often led to improvements in public health infrastructure.

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