Who was Ctesias of Cnidus?

Ctesias of Cnidus, a name perhaps not as well-recognized as Herodotus or Thucydides, was nonetheless a significant figure in the annals of ancient historiography. Born around 400 BC in the city of Cnidus in Caria, Asia Minor (now modern-day Turkey), Ctesias was a contemporary of other classical historians and philosophers. His life and works offer a fascinating glimpse into the world of the Persian Empire from a unique perspective—that of a Greek physician at the Persian court.

Ctesias of Cnidus offers a compelling study of a historian who navigated complex cultural and political landscapes to document the world he lived in. Image: An illustration of the Battle of Cunaxa by French artist Adrien Guignet. To note,Ctesias stood with the Achaemenid forces, serving Artaxerxes II during the Battle of Cunaxa.

Background and Career

Ctesias trained as a physician, a profession that held considerable prestige in the ancient world due to the vital role doctors played in society. His medical skills eventually led him to the Persian court, where he served as a physician to King Artaxerxes II Mnemon.

It was during his stay at the court, which lasted approximately 17 years, that Ctesias had the opportunity to access royal records and interact with individuals deeply entrenched in the political and military machinations of the empire. This position provided him with unique insights and access to information that later influenced his historical writings.

Beyond his medical duties, Ctesias was a prolific writer; his works included “Indica,” an account of India, and “Persica,” a 23-book history of Assyria and Persia. Image: Indica’s accounts included some rather odd tales, such as those of a tribe possessing only a single leg or individuals with feet so large they could serve as umbrellas, as illustrated in this image.

Contributions to Historiography

Ctesias is primarily known for two works: “Persica” and “Indica.” Both texts, unfortunately, survive only in fragments and later references by other authors, which makes reconstructing his original writings challenging.


This work consisted of 23 books and covered the history of the Assyrian and Persian empires up to the 4th century BC. It included accounts of the internal politics, royal succession, and major battles of the Persians.

Unlike Herodotus, who also wrote extensively about Persian history, Ctesias’ account is often seen as more sympathetic to the Persian perspective, possibly due to his close ties with the Persian royal family.

Ctesias’s narratives are considered valuable by historians for providing an alternative viewpoint, although they are often criticized for factual inaccuracies and a perceived bias toward his Persian patrons.


This was a more fantastical account of the lands and peoples of India, a region that fascinated the Greeks but about which they knew very little. “Indica” describes a variety of incredible creatures and customs, drawing on stories that Ctesias likely heard from traders and travelers. The work is often regarded as more of a curiosity than a factual report, reflecting the blend of fact and fiction that characterized ancient perceptions of distant lands.

Historical Criticism and Legacy

Ctesias’ works have been both valuable and controversial. In antiquity, he was criticized by other historians like Plutarch and Photius for his inaccuracies and alleged fabrications. Modern scholars debate his reliability, often contrasting his accounts with those of Herodotus and Xenophon, who provide differing perspectives on similar events.

Despite these criticisms, Ctesias remains an important source for understanding the Achaemenid Empire, particularly because he offers a counter-narrative to the predominantly Greek-centric views of his contemporaries.

His descriptions in “Indica,” regardless of their fantastical elements, contributed to European knowledge of India before the age of exploration significantly expanded geographic understanding. These accounts, blending real observations with myths, influenced the way India was perceived in the literary and scholarly circles of Greece and later Europe.

Ctesias also engaged in diplomatic efforts post-battle and aided Spartan general Clearchus prior to his execution in Babylon. Image: Clearchus during the Battle of Cunaxa.

Significance in the Study of Ancient History

Ctesias is a figure of interest not only because of what he tells us about the Persian Empire but also for his role in the broader field of historiography. His works illustrate the challenges of historical writing in the ancient world—balancing between factual reporting and the inclusion of hearsay or popular tales. His writings also highlight the interplay between history and literature in ancient Greek culture, where historians often had to entertain as much as inform.

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Did you know…?

Ctesias attended to King Artaxerxes II of the Achaemenid Empire during the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC, treating Artaxerxes’ wound amidst the conflict against Cyrus the Younger.

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