Category: Ptolemy XII Auletes

Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra’s father, ruled Egypt as a client king, making him somewhat beholden to the Roman Republic.

The Roman annexation of Cyprus, ruled by Ptolemy XII’s brother, became a significant event.

When his brother chose suicide over exile, Ptolemy XII’s inaction sparked widespread resentment among the Egyptians. This discontent culminated in his exile, along with a daughter thought to be Cleopatra.

In their absence, Cleopatra’s sister, Berenice IV, became queen in 58 BC.

While in exile, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra found sanctuary in Roman Italy, sheltered by their ally, Pompey the Great.

Ptolemy XII’s decision to assassinate Berenice IV’s envoys in Rome, hoping to win Roman favor, backfired, making Rome increasingly hostile. Consequently, they relocated to Ephesus in Anatolia.

In 55 BC, with significant Roman military backing, particularly from Aulus Gabinius, Ptolemy XII reclaimed the Egyptian throne. After reclaiming power, he had Berenice IV, the daughter who ruled during his exile, executed.

Anticipating the end of his reign, Ptolemy XII in 52 BC named Cleopatra VII as co-regent, ensuring a stable transfer of power.

Upon his death in 51 BC, Cleopatra VII and her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII, were named Egypt’s co-rulers, in line with Ptolemaic tradition. Their reign, however, was rife with internal disputes, significantly influenced by Rome’s strategic interests in Egypt.

Frequently Asked Questions about Ptolemy XII

Who was Ptolemy XII?

Ptolemy XII, also known as Ptolemy Auletes, was a pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.

When did Ptolemy XII rule Egypt?

Ptolemy XII ruled Egypt during the late 1st century BC.

How is Ptolemy XII related to Cleopatra?

Ptolemy XII was the father of the famous Cleopatra VII.

Why was Ptolemy XII exiled from Egypt?

He faced discontent among the masses due to his perceived subservience to Rome and his lack of resistance against the Roman annexation of Cyprus. This led to his exile after a revolt.

How did Ptolemy XII regain his throne?

With the assistance of Roman military support and funding, notably from Aulus Gabinius, he reclaimed his throne by invading Egypt.

Who succeeded Ptolemy XII after his death?

After his death in 51 BC, he was succeeded by his children Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII, who co-ruled Egypt.

What was the significance of Ptolemy XII’s appointment as the Priest of Alexander?

This significant religious and potentially political role was a way of introducing him to official duties, indicating preparations for his potential future leadership.

What was the public’s opinion of Ptolemy XII?

His perceived inaction against Roman interventions led to public discontent, culminating in his exile. However, strategic moves post-exile, like the establishment of a festival in his honor, were aimed at improving his image.

Were there any significant events during Ptolemy XII’s reign?

His reign saw political upheavals, including his exile, the temporary rule of his daughter Berenice IV, and the execution of Berenice upon his return.

How did Ptolemy XII’s rule impact the Ptolemaic dynasty and Egypt’s relationship with Rome?

His rule furthered Egypt’s ties and dependency on Rome, setting the stage for the significant Roman influence during Cleopatra VII’s reign and eventually Egypt’s annexation into the Roman Empire.

What was Ptolemy XII’s early life like?

By 109 BC, Pharaoh Ptolemy IX of the Ptolemaic dynasty began introducing his presumed son, Ptolemy XII, to official roles, possibly grooming him for future leadership. Ptolemy XII was appointed Priest of Alexander and the Ptolemaic kings, a crucial position usually held by Ptolemy IX, emphasizing its significance and the intent to acquaint Ptolemy XII with key responsibilities.

Additionally, a festival was instituted in Ptolemy XII’s honor in Cyrene, boosting his public stature and linking him to royal traditions. These strategic measures aimed to embed Ptolemy XII into the Ptolemaic dynasty’s socio-political framework and accustom the populace to his potential future kingship.

Who were Cleopatra’s parents?

Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator is a historic figure known for her beauty and intelligence and was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. The Ptolemaic dynasty was...