Category: Vice Presidents of the United States

The role of the Vice President of the United States, as established by the U.S. Constitution, has been both evolving and enigmatic. Initially viewed as the runner-up position to the presidency, the vice presidency has transformed over the years into a critical part of the executive branch.

Origins and Constitutional Role

The U.S. Constitution, in Article II, Section 1, establishes the position of the Vice President, primarily to provide a successor in the event the President cannot perform their duties. The 12th Amendment, ratified in 1804, refined the process by which presidents and vice presidents are elected, ensuring that they are chosen separately rather than the old method where the runner-up in the presidential election became vice president.

Functionally, the Vice President’s constitutional duties are limited. They serve as the President of the Senate and can cast a tie-breaking vote. Additionally, they are next in the presidential line of succession. Over time, however, vice presidents have taken on more roles and responsibilities at the discretion of the sitting president.

Major Facts and Notable Vice Presidents

  1. John Adams (1789-1797): The first Vice President under George Washington, Adams described the vice presidency as “the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived.”
  2. Thomas Jefferson (1797-1801): Serving under John Adams, Jefferson was the first vice president to ascend to the presidency due to an election.
  3. John C. Calhoun (1825-1832): Unique in having served under two presidents, John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, he resigned the vice presidency – a rare event – and was the only one to do so until Spiro Agnew in 1973.
  4. Theodore Roosevelt (1901): After serving only six months as vice president under William McKinley, Roosevelt became the youngest president at 42 when McKinley was assassinated.
  5. Calvin Coolidge (1921-1923): Coolidge was vice president under Warren G. Harding and assumed the presidency when Harding died in office.
  6. Harry S. Truman (1945): Serving only 82 days as vice president, Truman became president after Franklin D. Roosevelt’s death, guiding the U.S. through the end of WWII.
  7. Lyndon B. Johnson (1961-1963): LBJ was vice president under John F. Kennedy and stepped up to the presidency after Kennedy’s assassination, later winning a term in his own right.
  8. Walter Mondale (1977-1981): Serving under Jimmy Carter, Mondale transformed the vice presidency by being more of a close advisor and executive assistant, setting a precedent for his successors.
  9. Dick Cheney (2001-2009): Vice President under George W. Bush, Cheney was considered one of the most powerful vice presidents, particularly in foreign policy and the “War on Terror.”
  10. Kamala Harris (2021-present at the time of this writing): The first female, first Black woman, and first person of South Asian descent to be elected Vice President, marking a historic moment in U.S. politics.

Ascensions to the Presidency

Throughout U.S. history, 14 vice presidents (as of 2023) have become president. Nine of those ascended due to the death (or in one case, resignation) of a sitting president, while the rest were elected to the role.

Notable Trends

  • Changing Perceptions: Historically, the vice presidency was seen as a stepping stone to the presidency, but this perception waned in the 19th century. However, in the 20th and 21st centuries, the role has regained its status as a direct precursor to the presidency.
  • Diversification: While the office of the vice presidency was initially held by white men, the election of Kamala Harris has set a new precedent for diversity in the role.
  • Expanded Roles: Modern vice presidents, like Al Gore, Dick Cheney, Joe Biden, and Mike Pence, played significant roles in policy-making and advisory capacities, a shift from the more ceremonial duties of their early counterparts.

Challenges and Criticisms

The role of the vice president has not been without its criticisms. Some see the position as purely ceremonial, with limited powers unless the president delegates more. Others have criticized specific vice presidents for either overstepping their bounds or for being too passive. The balance of the role often depends on the dynamics between the president and vice president, which can vary significantly from one administration to the next.


The vice presidency, while constitutionally limited in its powers, has transformed over the centuries into a position of significant influence. As the dynamics of U.S. politics have shifted, so too has the role of the vice president, evolving from a secondary, often overlooked position into a crucial part of the presidential administration.